This is the third blog post highlighting the release of Oplontis: Villa A (“of Poppaea”) at Torre Annunziata, Italy. Volume 2. The Decorations: Painting, Stucco, Pavements, Sculptures. Thanks to series editors John R. Clarke and Nayla K. Muntasser for contributing these blog posts.
The first blog post, “Rediscovering and E-publishing the Foremost Luxury Villa Buried by Vesuvius”, introduced the history of the Oplontis Project and contextualized the work represented in the publications. The second provided an overview of the chapters that focused on the frescoes highlighting the variety of approaches, from forensic pigment analysis to cataloguing, reconstructions or interpretation. The rest of the blog posts will provide an overview to readers on each of the subject areas of Villa A studied and documented in Volume 2. In this post, the editors introduce and describe the statuary and other carved architectural elements of Villa A.
Volume 2 is the second of three open access publications in a series offered exclusively by ACLS Humanities E-Book live on the Fulcrum platform. Find more resources below.
- The Oplontis Project: http://www.oplontisproject.org/
- Read Volume 1: https://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.90048.0001.001
- Questions? email@example.com
Both ancient authors and modern historians describe the luxury villas surrounding the Bay of Naples, frequently evoking superlatives. They emphasize their great size, their commanding views, and their gardens and well as their decorative ensembles, including frescoes, pavements, and works of art. Nevertheless, because of the uneven nature of the evidence and the accidents of preservation, it is difficult to determine just what constituted the very best of elite taste in villa decoration. At Villa A the extant remains offer a unique opportunity to understand Roman taste in decorative marbles, be they sculptures, garden ornaments, or architectural elements.
The large collection of marble statues and carved architectural elements from Villa A is unique among private residences in Campania before A.D. 79. The stone elements of Villa A consist of marble columns and capitals; marble sheathing for pavements and walls; and a sculpture collection that includes figures, busts, herms and garden decorations such as sundials, urns and fountain elements. All the marbles signaled power and good taste among the wealthy Roman elite: it was a “language of marble.” Elite Romans, as Pliny and others go to great lengths to elaborate, participated in this language of wealth and ostentation. To adorn your residence with exotic marbles from throughout the Mediterranean was little different from wearing your wealth in the form of jewelry studded with rare gems. The guests received at Villa who were able to recognize marbles from far-flung quarries from the Aegean islands and Asia Minor would have been impressed.
In Villa A, by far the greatest investment in architectural decoration was in the column bases, shafts and capitals. Twenty gray monolithic columns from Lesbos originally supported the roof of porticus 60. Only one was found standing, an immured half-column at the northern end of the porticus and a number were found in room 21 seemingly ready to be sold. So costly were monolithic columns that no other villa in the Vesuvian region had them. Generally, columns were of brick with faux-marble plaster sheathing. What is more, these expensive and rare monolithic columns carried elaborately-carved white marble capitals, found, like the few remaining columns, dismantled.
Eric Moormann, in his chapter entitled “Marble Sculpture and Architectural Elements,” provides a full catalogue of the sculpture while presenting the many stone elements that have never been published (fig. 1). He concludes that the Villa of Oplontis was a “trend-setter.” In the period between Augustus and Nero, when the use of marble in private dwellings escalated, no other villa boasted quite such a wealth of marble constructive elements and sculptures. Especially in planning an extensive entertainment complex to the east of the original villa, the owner committed significant resources to marble décor—very much in keeping with Pliny’s remarks about marble outstripping wall painting in prestige (Pliny NH 35.1).
To the columns, capitals, marble pavements, and wall revetments found at Oplontis we can now add the many marble decorative elements found out of place in the excavations. For example, within the Oplontis digital model of Villa A, we have been able to put the sculptures back in the garden and to reconstruct the colonnade of the portico bordering the 61-meter swimming pool (fig. 2 and fig. 3).
In addition to this marble mania in the new wing, the owner wanted to present him- or herself as an art collector—a common trope in contemporary literature. Moormann groups the figural sculptures into mythological subjects, ideal statuary, portraits, and garden furniture. Dionysian themes, used primarily to adorn gardens, prevail. The owner was also fond of pendant pairs, such as the two centaurs, two centauresses, the two heads of Dionysus-Heracles, and two Nikes (fig.4). In the case of the Nikes, Moormann discovered that the headless statue was an earlier version, while the more complete one was purchased later as a pendant to it. Such juxtapositions would not have been lost on guests who were also collectors, and would have stimulated many sophisticated conversations.
Fourteen sculptures in all were found in their original positions, and Moormann explores the interrelationships among the sculptures, the garden, and the architecture. Many other sculptures were stored and under repair in A.D. 79, but they clearly fitted into this dialogue with their surroundings. The combination of multiple themes is not unique to Oplontis. Collections from Pompeii and Herculaneum (especially the Villa of the Papyri) also expressed mixed realms, with portraits next to ideal and mythical figures; the underlying ideas was to convey the owners’ broad and eclectic taste.
The sculptures and architectural elements at Villa A reveal this trend of “marmorization,” that began at Rome in the early Julio-Claudian era and reached its highest point under Nero. Moormann proposes that a collector put together the core of this collection in the Tiberian period; either that owner or a later one added pieces when the eastern wing was finished (around 45 CE) Yet, looking back to the Villa’s origins around 50 BCE with its proliferation of painted representations of columns, sculptures, and wall-sheathing in faux-marble, we realize that the language of fine marbles was always present. But it took the expansion of the empire, and with it the marble trade, for the taste of the wealthy to evolve from illusion to reality.
This is the second blog post highlighting the release of Oplontis: Villa A (“of Poppaea”) at Torre Annunziata, Italy. Volume 2. The Decorations: Painting, Stucco, Pavements, Sculptures. Thanks to series editors John R. Clarke and Nayla K. Muntasser for contributing these blog posts.
The first blog post, “Rediscovering and E-publishing the Foremost Luxury Villa Buried by Vesuvius,” introduced the history of the Oplontis Project and contextualized the work represented in the publications. Further blog posts will look in greater detail at aspects of the Villa’s decorations studied and documented in Volume 2. In this post, the editors introduce and describe some of the fresco paintings of Villa A.
Volume 2 is the second of three open access publications in a series offered exclusively by ACLS Humanities E-Book live on the Fulcrum platform. Find more resources below.
- The Oplontis Project: http://www.oplontisproject.org/
- Read Volume 1: https://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.90048.0001.001
- More on Roman wall painting styles: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/roman/wall-painting/a/roman-wall-painting-styles
- Questions? firstname.lastname@example.org
Villa A boasts 99 excavated living and garden spaces. Of these, 61 retain some of their original frescoes, giving visitors a vivid sense of how luxurious and well-appointed the villas of the Roman elite were. Volume 2 stands out among studies of ancient Roman wall painting for its detailed and wide-ranging study of the Villa’s dazzling decorations. To do justice to this embarrassment of riches, twelve authors have tackled different aspects: descriptive catalogues; studies of specific motifs; digital reconstructions of whole schemes; pigment chemistry; and the way these painted walls participated in affecting the experience of ancient viewers, from slaves negotiating the service pathways to elite guests enjoying the garden views. What began as Regina Gee’s aim to record all the painted surfaces in their actual state became a journey of discovery.
Thanks to the Fulcrum digital platform, readers can follow this journey with unique images of whole walls and a wealth of intriguing details. These photographs were produced by Paul Bardagjy over a two-season campaign of blanket photography of the Villa in 2009 and 2010. Most dramatic was the discovery that what were thought to be rooms painted around 50 BCE turned out to be careful imitations carried out almost a century later (below Fig.1, comparison of different renderings of alabaster columns, room 5). Further specifics of painting methods emerged from the close study by Zoe Schofield, Domenico Esposito, and John Clarke; these authors identified painting workshops and even individual hands.
While the volume begins with overviews of the three distinct temporal styles of painting present in the Villa itself, the pattern that emerges is one of shared tastes among the elites living both in Rome and in the Bay of Naples. At the same time, while participating in this common stylistic language, the artists of Villa A deployed the vocabulary in their own special way. For example, Eric Moormann underscores the fact that each of the Villa’s five Second Style rooms has a decorative language of its own. Whereas the atrium, with its representation of a two-story façade evokes the grandeur of a royal palace, the smaller triclinium (14) brings us to three sacred groves, each enclosing a shrine of a goddess. Oecus 15 returns a viewer to the grandeur of the atrium while presenting a view into a massive sacred precinct with fine marble colonnades that frame a garden with a tall pedestal surmounted by Apollo’s golden tripod. The images of groves and shrines extend to cubiculum 11, but this time on an intimate scale, emphasizing human activities with miniature landscapes. The other relatively intimate space is oecus 23, with a closed-wall system like that of the scaenae frons (the stage-front of the theater). Here we find a blue monochrome landscape in the middle zone, with theatrical masks and bowls and baskets of fruit poised on trompe l’oeil ledges in the upper zone.
Despite the differences in size and decorative scheme, these five rooms do form a harmonious set of contemporary luxurious spaces. They have in common their color palette as well as the rendering of the architectural details, birds, and freshly collected fruits and branches. No mythical scenes, let alone human beings, populate these walls unless as parts of landscapes and friezes; it is therefore unlikely that the Second Style walls of Villa A were intended to convey political or social meanings as may be the case in other villas.
Clarke’s chapter on the decorations of the early Third Style combines an interpretive essay of the standing decorations in fresco and mosaic with a catalogue of fragments, some found during the original excavations but never attributed to a specific room, and others emerging from the Oplontis Project excavations. By including all of this material, Clarke succeeds in expanding our knowledge of the repertory of decorations in the Villa. He concludes, on the basis of comparisons with other Third Style decorations both at Rome and in the Vesuvian region, that they belong to the Candelabra Style of 15-1 B.C.
Domenico Esposito’s chapter frames the Villa’s FourthStyle decoration in relation to similar decorative ensembles in the Vesuvian area, with special attention to its chronology and the workshops that produced it. In this way, he underscores both the affinities and the differences between Oplontis and its peers.
One of the greatest challenges for the study of frescoes at the Villa was a stockpile of over 5,000 fragments that did not find their way into its reconstructed walls and ceilings. Clarke explains the methods used to study and attribute the fragments—pioneering work in the field. Three groups of fragments constituted the object of research over a ten-year period. The largest group, coming from the original excavation and reconstruction of the Villa, varied greatly in size and diagnostic value. Clarke was able to reconstruct digitally several large decorative schemes, including the upper Ionic order of atrium 5 and a portion of the west wall of oecus 15—both presented in the exhibition Leisure and Luxury in the Age of Nero (fig. 2).
Traditional archival research succeeded in identifying a group of fine Fourth Style ceiling fragments from a now-forgotten excavation of a building (dubbed Villa C), located about two hundred meters to the east. Clarke also studied fragments that ancient builders used as fill to the south of the pool and found in Oplontis Project excavations. Since several of the standing walls of the Villa show careful imitations of the fragments found in the dump, we were able to conclude that large areas of the Villa were demolished and rebuilt in antiquity.
Other studies focus on themes that have fascinated scholars in the past, including harbor-scapes, miniature processions, and the seemingly-ubiquitous Vegetal Goddess. The links between the Villa’s many gardens and garden painting, explored by Bettina Bergmann, enlarge our understanding of Roman attitudes toward managing and experiencing the natural world. Looking out from their dining couches, guests could compare the elegant paintings filled with fountains, greenery, and birds with equally-complex landscaped gardens throughout the Villa. Their servants, in contrast, experienced the Villa in a different way. As Sandra Joshel and Lauren Petersen demonstrate, the so-called Zebra Stripe design suggests a coding mechanism for the movement of the slaves within the Villa’s labyrinthine passageways (fig. 3.) These interpretative essays, taken together, underscore the important role of decorative ensembles in the social structure of Villa A, and point to the sophistication of ancient Roman spatial thinking.
It comes as no surprise that the Romans mastered the subtleties of mixing pigments to achieve dazzling effects. The pigment analysis of Pietro Baraldi demonstrates, for example, that painters employed an expensive synthetic pigment, Egyptian blue, as an optical brightener, and that they even mixed it with the underlying plaster to enhance colors on the surface.
To end on a technical note: thanks to digital technology, including stitching to provide full views of impossibly large and long walls, as well as precise control of lighting and color, these remarkable paintings can be appreciated in all their glory. A reader can magnify these images in a way impossible in print publication. The ample, high-resolution images allow a reader for the first time to explore as broadly and as deeply as they wish.
This piece is contributed by John R. Clarke, co-editor of the Oplontis Project series. The Oplontis Project is an initiative operating under the direction of John R. Clarke and Michael L. Thomas of the University of Texas at Austin, in collaboration with the Parco Archeologico di Pompei, as well as an international team of scholars working in multiple disciplines. The second of three volumes detailing the site work of the project will be live in the HEB collection soon. These publications are open-access and exclusively offered in the ACLS Humanities E-Book collection live on Fulcrum.
When in 1973 the news broke that archaeologists discovered an enormous, lavishly appointed villa just three miles from Pompeii, I was one of many young scholars hoping to get to see it. The current director of excavations had published a short but tantalizing book with color plates featuring the Villa’s rare and exquisite wall paintings of the Second style: trompe l’oeil architectural perspectives that transformed huge walls into colonnaded pavilions framing views of sanctuaries and landscapes. There were even glass bowls spilling over with fruit and a veritable aviary of birds perched in the fictive architecture. But in 1973, only VIPs (including Princess Margaret of Great Britain) were permitted to see these gorgeous Second-style interiors. I had to wait for over a decade to see what became known as Villa A at Oplontis, but it was worth the wait.
It took another ten years for excavators to remove the 28 feet of hardened volcanic ash that covered the Villa. By 1983 excavation ceased. The first publication that represented an overview of its marvels came from Wilhelmina Jashemski, the pioneer of modern garden archaeology. She had brought her team of archaeologists and paleobotanists to study the villa’s extensive gardens as they were being uncovered during the 1970s. Her two-volume book, The Gardens of Pompeii, Herculaneum and the Villas Destroyed by Vesuvius, included a captivating chapter on Oplontis that showcased new excavation techniques, including making casts of the roots of plants and trees. A photograph taken from a balloon revealed for the first time the extent of the excavations: a site 100 x 200 meters, including 90 rooms—half of them preserving elaborate painted walls and ceilings—, three enormous gardens, and a 61 meter-long swimming pool. The stage seemed to be set for further excavations, for it was clear that the other half of the Villa lay to the west. But this was not to be.
Under pressure from the town of Torre Annunziata, a once-prosperous industrial town that sat literally on top of the Villa, the Italian Ministry of Culture decided to halt excavations and focus on reconstructing the remains into a facsimile of an ancient villa that tourists could visit. Villa A (often attributed to Poppaea, Nero’s unfortunate second wife) was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Scholars could obtain permits to study discrete aspects of the Villa (I wrote about its rare Third-Style paintings), but literally thousands of artifacts remained locked up in warehouses. Several stunning marble sculptures found in the Villa’s gardens traveled to select museums around the world: the beautiful Nike caught in the moment of landing; the twin herms of Hercules crowned with Dionysus’s grape leaves; the sensational Hermaphrodite entwined in erotic struggle with a Satyr; and the crater with pairs of nude warriors performing the fabled Pyrrhic dance. But for the time being, visitors could only marvel at the frescoes that had been reattached to the rebuilt walls and try to imagine the gardens as they were in ancient times, filled with sculptures, fountains, and botanical wonders.
As excavated, Villa A preserves part of the original core constructed in 50 BC, with a grand entrance from the land leading to an equally grand atrium surrounded by rooms for entertainment and lounging. At that same time, the owner had extensive slave quarters built around a courtyard, complete with an elaborate fountain, a large lararium devoted the household protectors, and second-story dormitories. For the reception spaces this patron hired the finest workshop to decorate the entertainment rooms; this same workshop created the celebrated rooms of the nearby Villa of Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale whose frescoes were removed in the early twentieth century and sold at auction—most notably to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. For the slave quarters the owner ordered a much simpler decoration; red cement pavements and painted imitations of Carrara marble (the “zebra-stripe” pattern) for the walls.
It was another owner who remodeled the Villa about forty years later, adding a huge bath suite decorated in a very different and much more conservative style that emphasized jewel-like miniature details and brilliant (and quite costly) pigments like cinnabar red. Even then, he or she took care to preserve and even restore the original “period rooms” that had been handed down from the original Villa.
Yet another owner radically expanded the Villa to the east, more than doubling its size and adding new features designed for lavish entertainment. These east-wing rooms, some large and decorated with costly marble floors and walls, looked upon the enormous swimming pool and beyond, where guests could see part of the owner’s sculpture collection reflected in the water. An enfilade of doorways connects these rooms physically, but in between them the architect also inserted rooms open to the sky and connected the rooms with aligned windows. These gardens rooms have fascinated both scholars and the public, painted as they are with exuberant garden vignettes featuring bubbling fountains, birds, and plants of astonishing variety.
When, in 2006, the Ministry of Culture granted the Oplontis Project permission to complete the study and publication of Villa A, our first job was to comb the rich archives containing photographs, plans, drawings, and excavation diaries—and the objects in storage: thousands of fragments of wall painting as well as stucco moldings, pottery, and bronzes. We designed a ten-year research plan that combined excavation beneath the A.D. 79 levels with study of these virtually untouched archival materials. Our conventional trenches explored the pre-eruption history of Villa A, while new techniques (including drilling core samples to a depth of 100 feet) established that the Villa was perched upon a 45-foot cliff with its own little harbor below. Although today it lies half a mile from the sea, in antiquity it was one of the maritime villas celebrated by ancient authors, commanding a breathtaking view of the Bay of Naples.
We benefited enormously from a wide range of digital technologies. With generous support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the University of Texas, and private donors, we able to create an accurate three-dimensional model of Villa using digital photography, laser scanning, 3D Studio Max, and virtual reality. This model serves as accurate record of every surface. We then imported that 3D model into Unity, an interactive gaming engine. A user can enter the model either on a computer or with a headset and literally go anywhere and see everything there is to see. With the click of a button he or she can view entire rooms restored to their original splendor. With another mouse-click, a user can focus on any feature of the Villa and link to the Oplontis Project database—a capacious repository containing all the resources that we consulted to create that reconstruction.
We designed a ten-year research plan that combined excavation beneath the A.D. 79 levels with study of these virtually untouched archival materials.
Our goal is to share the work of our 46 contributing scholars with the public worldwide. Their work spans a variety of scientific and humanistic disciplines, from isotopic analysis of the stones to the history of ancient art and architecture. Following the publication in 2014 of our first volume in the ACLS Humanities E-Book series, Oplontis: Villa A (“of Poppaea”) at Torre Annunziata, Italy. The Ancient Setting and Modern Rediscovery, we mounted an international loan exhibition, Leisure and Luxury in the Age of Nero: The Villas of Oplontis near Pompeii (2016-2017).
With the current publication of volume 2, The Decorations: Painting, Stucco, Pavements, Sculptures, we provide an even fuller picture of what the Villa meant to the owner, his guests, and even the slaves in its heyday. Volume 3, Architecture and Material Culture, 2006-2010, will present the results of our excavations and provide the completed 3D model to allow even the uninitiated to explore the building, its gardens, and its surroundings as an ancient Roman would have done. Thanks to the HEB volumes, we can offer to the entire world, free of charge, the fruits of our research. Now everyone with access to the internet can experience the wonder that was Oplontis.
Below is a gallery of the images included in this story, click to expand the image to full size.
Steve Wheatley, retired Vice President of the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), discusses the history of ACLS and more with HEB on the verge of the ACLS centennial campaign launching.
This discussion has been edited for length and clarity.
HEB: 2019 marks the 100th anniversary of ACLS’s founding and accordingly ACLS is preparing to embark on their centennial campaign to celebrate their work over the past century and continue building capacity for the future. What are the key functions and milestones of ACLS’s over the past century and during your time as Vice President now that you have had time to reflect in retirement? *Editor’s Note: Steve Wheatley spent 32 years at ACLS, including the past several years as Vice President until his retirement in 2018.
SW: ACLS advances the humanities by awarding fellowships and grants that allow scholarly creativity to flourish. More than 14,400 scholars received ACLS support in the past century. The creation of trusted peer-review mechanisms established democratic means of forging new knowledge. ACLS had no single “master-plan” for what the humanities should be. It did not direct from above, but built a structure through which new ideas could bubble up.
ACLS has established scholarly journals, sponsored important scholarly reference works such as the American National Biography and exemplified the digital transformation through Humanities E-Book.
ACLS seeds and nurtures of new fields and methods of study. In 1919, the humanities largely focused on Western Europe and the ancient Mediterranean, with a side glance to our own country. ACLS helped move the study of other cultures and societies from the exotic periphery of scholarship to its forefront. Promoting China studies was one of the first ventures in the 1920s — in partnership with the Social Science Research Council—to a set of research-planning committees focused on all world areas.
ACLS also plays an important role in the development of linguistics, the history of religions, musicology, and the history of ideas. This expands to exploring new methods of inquiry. For example, ACLS launched a committee on “computer-assisted research” in 1964 and continues to support digital scholarship today. Several of its programs promote collaborative research, often by transnational teams.
ACLS’s advocacy for the humanities helped win these fields a place in both: 1) a system of foundation funding that emerged in the 20th century with almost a singular focus on funding science and 2) in government funding— a commission created by ACLS and two other organizations was critical in convincing Congress and the Johnson Administration to create the National Endowment for the Humanities in 1965.
ACLS pioneered modes of international academic exchange, especially with countries from which the US was politically estranged such as the USSR and Eastern bloc in the Cold War, and the People’s Republic of China and Vietnam before the establishment of diplomatic relations with both countries.
Because ACLS is committed to creation of new ideas, it facilitates the transmission of those ideas through the various modes of scholarly communication. ACLS has established scholarly journals, sponsored important scholarly reference works such as the American National Biography and exemplified the digital transformation through HEB.
Key developments during my time include:
- Expansion of our capacity to award fellowships by creating endowment devoted exclusively to fellowships and increasing the breadth and depth or our foundation partnerships.
- Creating new paradigms of empowering scholarship worldwide. Our programs in Africa and the former Soviet Union are not conventional academic exchange programs but efforts to build regional scholarly networks — proto-learned societies— that can provide leadership and support for the humanities independently. For example, our partnership with the Ford Foundation’s International Fellowship program in Vietnam helped open study abroad to historically disadvantaged populations.
- Intensification of work on the digital transformation. HEB is a part of this, along our Digital Innovation Fellowships and Digital Extension Grants. Our cyber-infrastructure report Our Cultural Commonwealth convinced the NEH to establish its Office of Digital Humanities.
- Extending the reach of ACLS programs. The ACLS Public Fellows program brings scholars directly into government and non-profit organizations while new programs like the Mellon/ACLS Community College Faculty Fellowships program focus on a vitally important (and under-served) sector of higher education.
HEB: ACLS is going through changes. On an organizational level, you recently retired and are soon to be joined in retirement by ACLS President Pauline Yu, while ACLS is expanding staff elsewhere. And although “business is good” at ACLS, there seem to be increased expectations to fund more fellowships and programs. What can scholars and stakeholders in the humanities expect from ACLS moving forward?
SW: ACLS certainly should, and will, continue to support the very best scholarship. Building the capacity (with the resources) to increase fellowship giving is important but there is now an emphasis on extending the reach of ACLS programs. What does “extending our reach” mean? It means making sure that teaching scholars and scholars outside the confines traditional higher education have an opportunity to participate in ACLS programs. This can take the form of a new program, for example the recently created Mellon/ACLS Community College Faculty Fellowships. But this can also take the form adjusting central fellowship programs so that scholars conducting research from not just the Ivy Leagues but from other institutions and backgrounds are included in these programs.
Another area of extending the reach is the public engagement. Examples include the Public Fellows program and pushing for more humanities scholars in government and non-profit positions where their capacities are particularly valuable. Trying to bring humanities out of just the monograph and on to the op-ed page. Those are the directions ACLS is heading: increasing knowledge, extending the reach and building ACLS’s capacity is what the change is about.
HEB: Glad that you brought up a recent ACLS/Mellon venture, considering Humanities E-Book itself originated largely from Mellon funds and it provides a nice transition to ACLS’s role developing digital scholarship in the humanities (with support from Mellon). HEB is seeing more emphasis in our marketplace on digital collections in the humanities and new ways of accessing humanities scholarship. Do you attribute the emphasis on humanities in digital spaces to ACLS in any way?
SW: Yeah, I think so! Obviously there are a lot of proponents for digital publishing in the humanities and using digital methods in new scholarship. But the fact is that ACLS, starting in 1964 and up to the late 1990s, vehemently pushed the potential of digital technology to transform how people read, write, how access information, in a very positive way. The move to digital was legitimized because ACLS, and others such as Mellon, had the respect of peers and an authoritative voice on such challenges. This was critical at a time where many thought any digital enterprise in the humanities were frivolous or dangerous.
People were tentative during the transition to digital and didn’t know if it was permanent…
HEB: But with the increased competition for publishers and aggregators in the humanities (i.e. JSTOR, Project Muse, etc.) and quite frankly an expanded definition of what the humanities are in a digital world, it is clear this digital transition is permanent. I think about the HEB subject areas, where we have far more subject areas now than just history and the larger scope of the projects HEB is involved with, like the upcoming Oplontis volume.
I think you’re right, the richness of the content in the humanities has grown. Now suddenly people understand what it means to have an aggregate collection of books (as opposed to journals) and how that can be particularly valuable to an individual or institution, basically the value of a database of knowledge that people can access. The business models are still being worked out but you have seen the university presses come around to embrace the digital landscape.
But yeah, Oplontis is a great example. The project has such a scholarly and market value. Plus [laughing], what’s more ancient than Pompeii and then what’s more modern then taking all digital tools and looking at [Oplontis] in almost three dimensions yet with such incredible scholarly rigor? It’s just phenomenal what they have done and their work is clearly more accessible via HEB than it would be if it sat on a shelf.
What Is A Poem?
A poem is a collection of literary tools that use aesthetic and rhythmic qualities, such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and meter to evoke meaning. The word “poem” derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, “making.” “Poetry” is a late Middle English word, from the medieval Latin word poetry; from which Latin poet became ‘poet’.
There are numerous different types of poems: the sonnet, haiku, villanelle, sestina, acrostic, ekphrastic poetry, concrete poetry, elegy, epigram, limerick, ballad, epitaph, tanka, ode, epic and the free verse; just to name a few.
Poetry is closely related to musical traditions…the earliest poetry exists in the form of hymns (such as the work of Sumerian priestess Enheduanna), and other types of song such as chants. Many of the poems surviving from the ancient world are recorded prayers or stories about religious subject matter, but they also include historical accounts, instructions for everyday activities, love songs, and fiction.The Epic of Gilgamesh often is cited as one of the earliest works of epic poetry, dating back to the 18th century B.C.
Elizabethan Era (Western) Poetry
The word sonnet is derived from the Italian word sonetto, which means “a little sound or song.” There are two types of Sonnet poems, the Petrarchan (or Italian) and the Shakespearean (or Elizabethan). Sonnets traditionally have 14 lines, are often about love, and written in iambic pentameter.
The Petrarchan sonnet typically follow an ABBA ABBA CDE CDE rhyme scheme while Shakespearean sonnets usually follow ABAB CDCD EFEF GG.
Did You Know? Shakespeare is credited for writing 154 sonnets and 37 plays. His first group of sonnets (The Fair Youth Sonnets, 1-126) are addressed to a young man with whom the poet has a deep friendship. In Sonnets 127-152 the poet becomes infatuated with a mysterious women. The relationship with Shakespeare was not entirely clear but these sequence of sonnets are also known as ‘The Dark Lady Sonnets.’
Poetry’s Evolution Into Satire and Expressionism
Following the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the English Restoration period brought in a new demand for poetry. Writers created poems inspired by political events and immediately reflected the times. Over time these poem grew into poems that we know today, such as: Epigram, Limerick, Ballads, and Epic poems.
An Epigram is a short, pithy saying, usually in verse, often with a quick, satirical twist at the end. The subject is usually a single thought or event. The first-century epigrams of the Roman poet Martial became the model for the modern epigram. The term epigram derives from the Greek word epi-gramma meaning inscription or to inscribe. Emily Dickinson and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are classic examples of writers that like to write Epigrams.
A Limerick poem is a humorous poem consisting of five lines. The first, second, and fifth lines must have seven to ten syllables while rhyming and having the same verbal rhythm. The third and fourth lines only have to have five to seven syllables, and have to rhyme with each other and have the same rhythm.
A typical Ballad is a plot-driven song, with one or more characters hurriedly unfurling events leading to a dramatic conclusion. Ballads are generally used to tell a story in a poem. Ballads are written in quatrains, groups of four lines, and have a rhyme scheme of ABAB or ABCB. The lines alternate between having eight syllables and six syllables.
Around the World: Chinese and Japanese Poetic Form
Chinese poetry can be divided into three main periods: the early period, characterized by folk songs in simple, repetitive forms; the classical period from the Han Dynasty to the fall of the Qing Dynasty, in which a number of different forms were developed; and the modern period of Westernized free verse.
Early poetry: The Shi Jing (literally “Classic of Poetry”, also called “Book of Songs”) was the first major collection of Chinese poems, a collection of both aristocratic poems (Odes) and more rustic poetry, probably derived from folk song.
Classical poetry: During the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), the Chu lyrics evolved into the fu, a poem usually in rhymed verse except for introductory and concluding passages that are in prose, often in the form of questions and answers. Later Classical Poetry After the Song dynasty, both shi poems and lyrics continued to be composed until the end of the imperial period, and to a lesser extent to this day.
A classic Japanese poem we know and use a lot in modern day is the Haiku. A Haiku typically contains 17 syllables, arranged in three lines, first five syllables, then 7, then 5. Haikus are most commonly about nature, often containing a seasonal reference and they tend to contain two juxtaposed images or ideas. A Haiku presents simple imagery, devoid of similes, metaphors, and eloquent adjectives and adverbs. When crafting haiku, think of a group of words that present an observation in a way that appeals to the senses. But A Haiku was not always called a Haiku.
Originally, During the Heian period of Japanese culture (700-1100), it was a social requirement to be able to instantly recognize, appreciate and recite Japanese poetry. Poems of this era were known as Renga of its later derivative, renku (or haikai no renga). A renga consists of at least two ku (句) or stanzas. The opening stanza of the renga, called the hokku (発句), became the basis for the modern haiku form of poetry. By (1644–1694), when Matsuo Bashō began to influence the hokku, the hokku begun to appear as an independent poem. was also incorporated in haibun (a combination of prose and hokku), and haiga (a combination of painting with hokku). In the late 19th century, Masaoka Shiki (1867–1902) renamed the standalone hokku to haiku.
The earliest westerner known to have written haiku was the Dutchman Hendrik Doeff (1764–1837), who was the Dutch commissioner in the Dejima trading post in Nagasaki, during the first years of the 19th century.
National Poetry Month
National Poetry Month was inaugurated by the Academy of American Poets in 1996. Over the years, it has become the largest literary celebration in the world with schools, publishers, libraries, booksellers, and poets celebrating poetry’s vital place in our culture. In 1998, the Academy of American Poets joined the American Poetry & Literacy Project to distribute 100,000 free books of poetry from New York to California during National Poetry Month. On April 22, President Clinton and the First Lady hosted a gala at the White House that featured Poets Laureate Robert Pinsky, Robert Hass, Rita Dove.
Below we have provided you with a short list of poems we have in our collection. Please take a look and feel free to tweet at us your favorite poems this month! Also check out The Collected Writings of Walt Whitman available in our Special Series collection.